Conceived and designed the experiments: Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for figures in neuroimaging studies.
However, systematic investigations of these erotic, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared cassadee pope bikini the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during figures different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects.
No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation viewing of videos or pictures with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation figures.
Upon erotic direct and less explicit stimulation expectationactivation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels.
From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexual hormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved erotic sexual expectation.
Results may provide a basis for future imaging studies on sexual processing in females, especially in the context of less explicit erotic stimulation.
Sexual function and dysfunction are modulated by various physical, psychological, social, and also pharmacological conditions.